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Geophysical surveys provide non-visual information to assist in core/chip logging

Lithologies that may be difficult to distinguish visually may be readily distinguishable by geophysical properties

Rock properties, including metallurgical parameters, can be measured continuously throughout the borehole, with high resolution and rapid results

Proxies can be developed for properties that are not measured directly, such as geochemistry

Can be used to constrain and refine geophysical 3D models

Identify off-hole anomalies

Above: Certain geophysical properties correlate with certain lithological units. Notice geophysical properties show some variation that is not captured in the lithology logs, potentially providing valuable insights to the geologist.

Above: Geophysical estimations for lithological interpretation can be useful to highlight variation that may not be captured visually by the geologist.

Above: Constraining surface geophysical surveys with downhole surveys increase depth resolution, improve 3D model accuracy, and (as shown here) potentially identify new drill targets.


Induced Polarization, Resistivity (Elog), and Inductive Conductivity


Characterize lithologies, alteration and ore zones based on resistivity, conductivity, and chargeability

Resistivity and Induced Polarization require water in hole

Conductivity can run in dry or wet hole, and behind non-conductive casing

Resistivity & conductivity anomalies are associated with a variety of metal deposits, and chargeability anomalies (from Induced Polarization) are commonly associated with disseminated suphides

Above: Lithology log with resistivities adjacent. Notice some variation in the Resistivity log is not captured in the Lithology log.

Cross-hole (Induced Polarization/Resistivity only)

Induced Polarization/Resistivity cross-sections can be generated between holes

Identify mineralization not intercepted by borehole

Image fluid flow pathways (see “Hydrogeology” section)

Cross-hole surveys provide superior depth resolution relative to surface surveys

Above: Cross-hole Induced Polarization survey, showing anomaly pattern.

Spontaneous Potential

Measures natural electrical fields in formation and drill mud/water interface

Correlates with clay content and salinity contrasts

Also used for stratigraphic characterization and correlation


Magnetic Susceptibility

Measures the amount of magnetic material in the formation

Map lithologies and identify ore zones by magnetic highs or lows

Track iron content for metallurgy

Above: Magnetic Susceptibility log, shown with iron assay results delivered months later.

3D Magnetic Field Mapping

Measures magnetic field strength and direction

Detect and vector-in on off-hole magnetic anomalies

Above: Schematic representation of magnetic field mapping, showing the variation in direction of the magnetic field downhole

Natural and Spectral Gamma

Natural Gamma

Traditional measurement of total radioactivity in the near-hole environment

Commonly used for lithology and stratigraphic characterization

Used to detect K-alteration

Above: A Natural Gamma log, showing correlation with lithology. Note some variation in the Natural Gamma log is not reflected in the Litho log.

Spectral Gamma

Subdivides radiometric signature into concentrations of K, U and Th

Used for mineral/lithology identification, especially clays

Delineate U ore from K alteration.

Above: A Spectral Gamma log, showing Total Gamma as well as K/U/Th concentrations. The upper gamma spike is from K, whereas the lower spikes are primarily from U.

Above: A common clay classification scheme based on Th/K ratio.

Acoustic Velocity

Acoustic Velocity

Measures P & S wave velocities

Combine with Density to calculate mechanical and elastic properties such as Young/s/Bulk/Shear Moduli, Poisson’s Ratio, Compressibility

Test efficacy of seismic methods & calibrate seismic model

Calculate primary vs secondary porosity

Cement bond logging for well integrity/fluid migration analysis

Above: Fullwave Sonic and Density logs, with calculated mechanical properties, showing contrast at a geological contact.


Measures electron density, from which bulk density is calculated

Combine with Fullwave Sonic to calculate mechanical properties (see Fullwave Sonic above)

Survey to test efficacy of seismic methods

Combine with Neutron or Magnetic Resonance for dry weight density, used for ore tonnage and reserves calculations

Calculate overburden

Distinguish lithologies (e.g. coal seams) by density contrast

Above: Fullwave Sonic and Density logs, with calculated mechanical properties, showing a contrast with geology.

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We are here to help you select the best services for your project. Contact our team for more information and tailored solutions.